Ancient textile machinery
The spinning pendant is the earliest tool for spinning in the history of Divine Land. Its appearance can be traced back to the Neolithic Age at least. According to archeological data, almost all of the early residents of more than 30 provinces and cities in the whole of China have unearthed the spinning wheel of the primary device. The early spinning wheels unearthed were generally made of stone or pottery pieces after simple grinding, and their shapes were different. They were mostly drum-shaped, round, oblate, quadrangular, etc., and some wheels were also painted with patterns. The emergence of spinning pendants not only transformed the textile production of the original commune form, but also had a profound impact on the development of spinning tools in the future. It has been used as a lightweight spinning tool for thousands of years, even in the twentieth century. Nomadic Tibetans in Tibet still use it for spinning.
2. Spinning wheel
Ancient spinning wheels can be divided into two types: hand spinning wheels and pedal spinning wheels. The image data of the hand-spinning wheel was repeatedly found in the unearthed cultural relics of the Han Dynasty, indicating that the hand-spinning wheel was very popular in the Han Dynasty. The pedal spinning wheel was developed on the basis of a hand spinning spinning wheel. At present, the earliest image data is the Eastern Han Dynasty stone unearthed in Sihong County, Jiangsu Province. The power of the manual spinning wheel to drive the spinning wheel comes from the hand. During operation, the spinning wheel needs to be shaken with one hand and the spinning is done with one hand. The power of the spinning wheel driven by the pedal spinning wheel comes from the feet. During operation, the spinning woman can hold the spinning operation with both hands, which greatly improves the efficiency of things. Since the advent of the spinning wheel, it has always been the most popular spinning machine. Even in modern times, some deserted areas still use it as the primary spinning tool.
3． Hydraulic spinning wheel
The number of spindles on ancient spinning wheels was usually two to three, with a maximum of five. During the Song and Yuan dynasties, along with the development of social form and economy, a large spinning wheel with dozens of spindles was gradually produced on the basis of various handed down spinning machine tools. The difference between the large spinning wheel and the original spinning wheel is that it is unique in that the number of spindles is as high as dozens, and it is deceived by hydraulic drive. These unique features enable the large spinning wheel to have the latest approximate shape of modern spinning machinery, which is suitable for a wide range of professional production. Taking spinning as an example, a general spinning wheel can spin a maximum of 3 catties per day, while a large spinning wheel can spin more than 100 catties a day and night. When spinning, we need to use enough hemp talent to meet its production capacity. The hydraulic spinning wheel is an important invention of ancient China applying natural power to textile machinery. For example, with regard to spinning machines that use water power as the driving force, China is more than 4 centuries earlier than the West.
4． Pedal loom
Pedal loom is a general name for a weaving machine equipped with a foot lifter. The earliest emergence of pedal looms lacks reliable historical data. Researchers have speculated that the appearance of pedal looms was based on historical phenomena, including the fact that the number of cloths donated by the princes during the Warring States Period was a hundred times higher than when they were aged, and physical materials such as Han portrait stones carved with pedal looms unearthed in recent years. Dating back to the Warring States Period. By the Qin and Han dynasties, the Pan-Bo region of the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins had been widely used. The use of a foot pedal to raise the hedging gear in the loom is a major invention in the history of the development of the loom. It frees the hands of the weaver from the hedging action to specialize in shuttle and beating, which greatly improves productivity. Taking the production of plain weave as an example, it is 20 to 60 times higher than that of the original loom. The appearance of 0.3 to 1 meter of spinning per person per hour can not only transform the textile production of the original commune, but also for the future spinning tools. Its development has a profound impact, and it has been used as a lightweight spinning tool for thousands of years. Even in the twentieth century, some nomadic Tibetans in Tibet still used it for spinning.